The transportation sector is responsible for roughly one-quarter of the total greenhouse emissions in the EU, with road vehicles contributing to over 60% of the emissions. The European Green Deal outlines the climate change mitigation targets as follows: “all 27 EU Member States committed to turning the EU into the first climate neutral continent by 2050”. They pledged to reduce emissions by at least 55% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels and reaching out to a fossil-free society by 2050. The transportation and energy sectors globally contributed to roughly 16% and 23% of global CO2 emissions (2017), respectively. Strict vehicle emission regulations and other policy measures will speed up the transition towards zero-emission transport, curbing the total EU emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Besides transport, an equally significant transition from fossil towards green energy is ongoing as an essential part of the European Green Deal.

The electrified applications either from automotive or marine or stationary are strongly depending on powerful battery technologies in terms of energy, power, safety, and long lifetime as well as acceptable cost. In this regard, next generation battery technologies such as Gen 3b and solid-state technology can fulfil most of those requirements. Since the characteristics of those battery technologies are different from the conventional lithium-ion batteries Gen 2a/b, there is dedicated need to develop non-invasive multi-sensing, real-time analytics as well as new and robust state functions that can estimate and predict the battery performances, accurately, which can be implemented into an open-access Battery management system (BMS).

Read More


The project BATMAX sets out to pave the way for advanced next-generation data-based and adaptable battery management systems capable of fulfilling the needs and requirements of various mobile and stationary applications and use cases.

Given the role of battery systems as a key enablingtechnology within the green shift in transport, mobility, and energy, it is evident that multiple combinations of requirements, use cases, duties, and businesses are placed upon battery systems.

The BATMAX project has chosen
to focus on four use case application
areas for batteries:

Non-road mobile

These offer a very versatile mixture of the battery system and management requirements, which require a methodical approach applicable to all types of battery use. Temperature, average state of charge (SOC), depth of discharge (DOD), and fast charge/power rating all depend on the characteristics of the use case.

BATMAX project focuses on battery management in terms of safety, lifetime, reliability, and performance while simultaneously optimizing the value it can create for the end-use case it supports.

Outcomes & Impact

Expected outcomes

New physics and data-based approaches for battery management, with the potential to enhance performances, lifetime, reliability and safety of battery systems for transport and stationary applications.

New physics and data-based approaches for battery management facilitating predictive maintenance, and/or knowledge-driven end-of-life management of battery systems, and/or the development of more accurate degradation models.

Market needs
  • • Electric mobility
  • • Transport electrification
  • • Grid storages
  • • Energy flexibility
  • • Sustainable batteries:
    back-end and 2nd life
  • • Batteries: long lifetime, high performance, reliable, safe, traceable
BATMAX execution
BATMAX Key Exploitable Results
  • 1. Efficient parametrisation of physics-based models
  • 2. Accurate reduced AI-driven models from large amounts data
  • 3. New battery system sensorisation and secure communication
  • 4. Scalable and optimised system-level digital twins
  • 5. Explored opportunities to battery utilisation
D & C & Exploitation
Steering and adoption towards use:
Expected Outcomes (EO)
  • • Policies towards zero-emission technologies enforced across use cases
  • • Investments in sector-integrating infrastructures (AFIR)
  • • BATMAX results further advanced by the research community
  • • Manufacturing industry speeds up product development utilising batteries
  • • Transport and mobility end users renew fleets to zero-emission
  • • Grid-connected battery storages quadruple by 2030
Expansion of solutions: Impact
  • • DNSH technologies are the solutions of choice in transport and energy
  • • European industry in the battery value chain reaches a leading global position
  • • Transport electrification leads to 90% CO2 reduction and 50% energy use reduction by 2040 and fossil-free transport by 2050
  • • Electric drive has the lowest total cost for owner in most mobile use cases by 2030
  • • Stationary storage in batteries and EV deployment create stability and flexibility in the market


The BATMAX consortium comprises 12 partners from 10 European countries including six industrial and six research partners, an excellent balance between research and industry. The BATMAX project brings together a multidisciplinary team of dedicated researchers, industry partners and stakeholders, to innovate in the design and development of the next generation of battery systems.

  • rid